What Language on Mars?

02/08/2010

Predictions Revisited

What Language Will They Speak on Mars?

The planet Mars in Chinese script. Credit: About.com: Chinese Culture, written by “js”

Chinese, on present showing. Never mind that seven men – Russian (4) European (2) and Chinese (1) – are now two months into a 520-day isolation trial in Moscow, simulating a manned mission to Mars. That’s for show. Political willpower will settle the issue.

In 1964 the rocket engineer Wernher von Braun forecast a human visit to Mars by 1984. That might well have happened had the US not cancelled its proposed Orion rocket in 1965 – the year after von Braun made his prediction. The trouble was that Orion would have had nuclear propulsion, not merely by nuclear motors, but by nuclear bombs. So it had to be abandoned in the aftermath of the nuclear test-ban treaty, much to the annoyance of Freeman J. Dyson and other enthusiasts.

Orion – the gigantic might-have-been

Here’s a diagram from my book Spaceships of the Mind (1978) which accompanied the BBC-OECA series with the same title, produced by Dick Gilling of BBC-TV. Assembled in Earth orbit, Orion would have carried about 2000 10-kiloton nuclear fission bombs, released at a rate of one a second to explode close behind a large spaceship. With a pusher plate absorbing the shocks, the spacecraft would quickly reach a speed that would take about 20 astronauts around Mars and back to Earth in just six months.

It may seem daft now but Orion was a recognition, at the very start of the Space Age, that if human beings are ever to become serious about space travel, they’ll have to think nuclear. That’s still the case, although nuclear fusion will be preferable, of course, with ignition as far from the Earth as possible.

When von Braun contributed to the New Scientist’s 1964 series on “The World in 1984” he remained mute about Orion although he glanced the nuclear option. At the time he was director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, with the Apollo missions to the Moon at the top of his agenda. Here, for a start, are two early extracts from his article entitled “Exploration to the Farthest Planets”:

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Ocean energy

02/05/2010

Predictions revisited

Ocean energy for free

or As close as you’ll get to perpetual motion

Hearing of the success with a submersible powered entirely by the differences in temperature at different ocean depths brings a feeling of déja vu. A press release of from NASA’ s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) quotes engineer Jack Jones:

While not a true perpetual motion machine, since we actually consume some environmental energy, the prototype system … can continuously monitor the ocean without a limit on its lifetime imposed by energy supply.

SOLO-TREC deployed for an endurance test. Photo: NASA/JPL/US Navy/Scripps Institution of Oceanography

JPL’s partner in the project is the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego. The robotic vehicle’s name is SOLO-TREC, an acronym for the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangrian Observer Thermal RECharging submersible. It heralds a new generation of robotic vehicles for virtually endless ocean monitoring for climatic studies, marine biology, exploration, and no doubt military uses too. Funding comes from the Office of Naval Research.

The vehicle has ten tubes around it filled with a waxy material that expands mightily in warm water near the surface and shrinks in the cold water down below, driving a hydraulic motor for power generation. In recent months, SOLO-TREC has made 3-4 dives a day to 500 metres, producing enough power to keep its batteries charged, control its buoyancy, and operate its instruments and communications.

In “Spaceships of the Mind”, a 1978 TV series that I scripted and fronted for the BBC’s producer-director Dick Gilling, we talked centrally about the idea, then being strongly touted, to build settlements in space to relieve the human pressure on planet Earth. But the geochemist Harrison Brown of Caltech, himself a prolific writer on “futures”, intervened to advocate man-made islands floating on the oceans. As he explained:

In the tropics it is quite possible to extract energy from the oceans by making use of the temperature differential between the deeper waters and the waters of the surface. The potential power available is ample to supply a large city for all of its needs. In addition, the deeper waters are filled with plant nutrients – phosphates and nitrates – and if these are contained then one can grow photosynthetic matter, marine plants, and permit fish, shellfish and so forth to feed upon them. This would provide a great deal of food. And indeed one could easily see a very self-sufficient city out in the ocean, which would be a lot loss expensive than an orbiting city up in space – and I suspect a lot more comfortable.

In Brown’s scheme it was a matter of pumping up deep-lying water and using the temperature difference with the surface water to generate power for the pumps and everything else. Although ocean energy is “free”, that’s only in the sense that solar, tidal, hydro and wind power are free. Heavy engineering is required, and the thermodynamics of ocean power are poor because of the small temperature differences.

As a result “ocean thermal energy conversion” has been slow to progress since French physicists began toying with the idea more than 100 years ago and built the first 22-kilowatt plant in Cuba in 1930. But interest continues in the USA, Japan and India, so it may be only a matter of time before ocean gigawatts confound the Malthusians — if need be, decades or centuries from now, on the same kind of timeline as those settlements in space. Meanwhile little SOLO-TREC cheers the spirits, telling us that the natural world is much richer than most people seem willing to know.

References

NASA/JPL press release 5 April 2010

Spaceships of the Mind” BBC-TV 3X50min, produced and directed by Dick Gilling, scripted and presented by Nigel Calder, 1978

Spaceships of the Mind by Nigel Calder, BBC, Viking, etc. 1978.

The Challenge of Man’s Future by Harrison Brown, Viking 1954

The Next 100 Years by James Bonner and Harrison Brown, Viking 1957

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean__energy_conversion